July 2012 Crossword

Theme: Logical Fallacies (1)

By Ken Greatorex

Suggested references: 
http://theskepticsguide.org/resources/logicalfallacies.aspx
http://vicskeptics.wordpress.com/2012/02/26/critical-thinking-videos-and-book/

(Click to enlarge and download)

CLUES ACROSS:

           1. & 12 Down: An argument that draws comparisons between two situations  based on similarities which don’t really apply. Example: If evolution is  random, then it’s like having an explosion in a rubbish tip which causes a working space shuttle to self- assemble. (two words, [5], [7])

7. In opposition [7]

10. Ad _ _ _ _ _ _ _  Attacking the person, not the argument [7]

11. Unhappy [3]

13. Wharf [4]

14. Italian wine [4]

16. See 36 Across

18. Jelly [5]

20. See 26 Across

21. The Lion [3]

22. & 65 Down: Literally, “You Too”. Also known as an Appeal to Hypocrisy. It dismisses someone’s point of view based on criticism of the person’s inconsistency, and not the position presented. (Two words, [2], [6])

23. Foot-operated lever  [5]

24. Certain [4]

26. & 20 Across: : _ _ _ _ _ _ the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Arbitrarily shifting  the requirement for proof beyond the range of current evidence: Example:  An intermediate fossil is demanded to establish an evolutionary relationship between species A and species C. Species B is discovered and fits the criteria. Now there are two new demands: for  intermediates between A & B and B & C. (Two words, [6], [8])

28. & 61 Across: An attempt to counter a position by arguing against a different position. Example: Skeptics oppose Homeopathy because it conflicts with their world view (not because Scientific testing consistently exposes Homeopathy as valueless) (Two words, [5], [3])

29. Segment of a circle [3]

31. Primate [3]

32. Instruct, educate [5]

34. Non-prescription analgesic [7]

35. Not many[3]

36. & 57 Across & 16 Across: If the premises lead to an absurd conclusion then the premises must be wholly or partly wrong. This reasonable principle  has suffered abuse. Example: If I don’t believe in ghosts I must necessarily not believe in atoms, since I haven’t actually seen either.  (Three words, [8], [2]], [8])

38. Playing card [3]

39. Festival or feast. [4]

40. Quarry [4]

41. Purge, eradicate, become free from [3]

42. & 8 Down: Argument from _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _     _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _    “I cannot explain or understand that, therefore it can’t be true” (two words,  [8], [11])

44. Sweet Food [5]

45. Mineral Spring [3]

47. Dandy, fop [4]

48. See 48 Down

50. Biblical priest [3]

52. & 15 Down: Argument based on the idea that if A preceded B, A must necessarily have caused B (Two words, often hyphenated [4], [3])

54. Small citrus fruits [8]

57. See 36 Across

58. Cold [3]

59. Belonging to us [3]

60. Charged atom [3]

61. See 28 Across

62. Related to words [6]

64. Rich, creamy soup made from meat, fish, or shellfish [6]

67. Contradict; reject [4]

68. Digital appendages [4]

69. & 2 Down: Logical fallacy where a stated conclusion is not supported by its premise. Example: All men are human. Mary is human, therefore  Mary is a man. (Two words, [3], [8])

70. Fastened firmly in place [5]

72. Ad _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _  The argument from ignorance; The  argument that a belief is true because we don’t know that it isn’t true. Example: The human brain is so complicated that it is not yet thoroughly understood, so it’s likely that ESP is possible. [11]

74. Factual [4]

77. Argument from _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. Example: Dr X believes in Y and he’s a highly qualified person, so it must be true [9]

80. Tree [3]

81. An argument which employs circular reasoning: Example: The Bible is the Word of God. The Bible tells us so and the Bible is infallible, because it’s the Word of God. [9]

82. Territory of North-West Canada [5]

83. Garland [3]

84. (abb) Retire from military service [5]

85. Malady with alternating periods of chills, fever, and sweating [4]

CLUES DOWN:

1. Genetic _ _ _ _ _ _ _. Error of relevance based 1n linking current usage to superseded historical usage. Example: It is inappropriate to wear a wedding ring because the wedding ring evolved from the slave-bracelet. [7]

2. See 69 Across

3. Bashful [3]

4. Occurring at the end [5]

5. Argument based on reverse of cause and effect, also called Argument  from Final Consequences: Example: The earth is an ideal place for  humans to live, therefore it must have been designed that way. [12]

6. Shorthand for paranormal [3]

7. Sun-dried brick [5]

8. See 42 Across

9. Novel, play, or film that continues a previously related story [6]

12. See 1 Across

14. Large vessel used to hold liquids [3]

15. See 52 across

17. Plausible but fallacious argumentation [9]

19. Cleric who assists a vicar [6]

24. Cooked by simmering [6]

25. Female sheep [3]

27. Related to the period during which menstruation ceases [10]

28. & 42 Down: Another term for ad hoc reasoning. Example: Water Diviners perform badly when scientifically tested. Obviously the testing procedure interferes with the divining process. (Two words, [7], [8])

29. Units of area [5]

30. Study of using language persuasively. [8]

31. From, at or to a great distance [4]

33. False _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _: The arbitrary reduction of many possibilities to only two. Example: He is an enemy of my enemy therefore he must be my friend. [9]

37. Lair [3]

39. Unrestricted [4]

40. South American country [4]

42. See 28 Down

43. Snake [3]

45. Body of water [3]

46. Stroke lightly as a gesture of affection [3]

47. Seed vessel with hooks or prickles [4]

48. & 48 Across: The idea that a position is untenable because to accept the position would necessarily require one to accept the extreme. Example: Pornography should not be banned, because once any form of  literature can be banned, will never stop. It will lead to burning all  the classic books. (Two words, [8], 5])

49. Possess [3]

51. Place, stead [4]

53. Oblation [8]

54. False _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _: If the distinction between two extremes is not clear cut, then it is not real or meaningful. Example: One grain of sand  is not a heap. Two grains of sand is not a heap. Three grains of sand is still not a heap; and so on. Therefore, as long as we add grain by grain, we will never form a heap of sand. [9]

55. Change position [4]

56. See 63 Down

63. & 56 Down: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. A conclusion is  assumed within a question. Example: When are you going to stop beating your wife? (Two words, [7], [8])

64. Change from a liquid to a vapour by the application of heat [4]

65. See 22 Across

66. Period of time [5]

71. Herb [4]

73. Without legal force; invalid [4]

75. Fish [3]

76. Mixed emotion of reverence, respect, dread, and wonder [3]

77. Vote of affirmation [3]

78. Technical Knock-out [3]

79. Flat top part of a stove [3]

Solution

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